Plantgalls are abnormal outgrowth of plant tissues caused by various parasites, particularly insects. Oak marbal galls are Chinese Sumac galls are gall on Oak and Chinese Sumac, respectively which resembles nuts and are called “gallnuts” or “nutgalls”Are small tree or shrub 2-5m high, native of Greece, Asia Minor and Iran. This tree yields the Oak galls, used widely in dyeing and tanning. The galls contains tannic acid (gallotannic acid) as the principle constituent (50-70%) They contain gallic acid, ellagic acid, gum, starch, sugar and essential oils. Is used extremely for its astringent effect. The galls are said to find extensive application in tanning, dyeing, mordanting and in the manufacture of ink.When used on its own gallnut extract produces beiges on wool, cotton, silk. With an iron after bath the colour changes to grey and black. This extract can also be used to sadden other colours. Gallnut extract is also very useful for the mordanting effect of the tannic.
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